Brand Names Mixture
- Dilantin W Phenobarbital 15mg (Phenobarbital + Phenytoin Sodium)
- Dilantin W Phenobarbital 30mg Cap (Phenobarbital + Phenytoin Sodium)
msds (material safety sheet)
Henze, U.S. Pat. 2,409,754 (1946)
Capsule (extended release); Liquid; Solution; Suspension; Tablet
For the control of generalized tonic-clonic (grand mal) and complex partial (psychomotor, temporal lobe) seizures and prevention and treatment of seizures occurring during or following neurosurgery.
Phenytoin is an antiepileptic drug which can be useful in the treatment of epilepsy. The primary site of action appears to be the motor cortex where spread of seizure activity is inhibited. Phenytoin reduces the maximal activity of brain stem centers responsible for the tonic phase of tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures. Phenytoin acts to damp the unwanted, runaway brain activity seen in seizure by reducing electrical conductance among brain cells. It lacks the sedation effects associated with phenobarbital. There are some indications that phenytoin has other effects, including anxiety control and mood stabilization, although it has never been approved for those purposes by the FDA.
Bioavailability 70-100% oral, 24.4% for rectal and intravenous administration. Rapid rate of absorption with peak blood concentration expected in 1½ to 3 hours.
side effects and Toxicity
Oral, mouse: LD50 = 150 mg/kg; Oral, rat: LD50 = 1635 mg/kg. Symptoms of overdose include coma, difficulty in pronouncing words correctly, involuntary eye movement, lack of muscle coordination, low blood pressure, nausea, sluggishness, slurred speech, tremors, and vomiting.
Patients taking phenytoin should be advised of the importance of adhering strictly to the prescribed dosage
regimen, and of informing the physician of any clinical condition in which it is not possible to take the drug orally
as prescribed, eg, surgery, etc.
Patients should also be cautioned on the use of other drugs or alcoholic beverages without first seeking the
Patients should be instructed to call their physician if skin rash develops.
The importance of good dental hygiene should be stressed in order to minimize the development of gingival
hyperplasia and its complications.
Do not use capsules which are discolored.
Humans and other mammals