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Amphenicol
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Amphenicol Brand names, Amphenicol Analogs

Amphenicol Brand Names Mixture

  • No information avaliable

Amphenicol Chemical_Formula

C11H12Cl2N2O5

Amphenicol RX_link

http://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic3/chloramphenicol.htm

Amphenicol fda sheet

Amphenicol FDA

Amphenicol msds (material safety sheet)

Amphenicol MSDS

Amphenicol Synthesis Reference

No information avaliable

Amphenicol Molecular Weight

323.129 g/mol

Amphenicol Melting Point

150.5 oC

Amphenicol H2O Solubility

2500 mg/L (at 25 °C)

Amphenicol State

Solid

Amphenicol LogP

1.476

Amphenicol Dosage Forms

Capsule; Drops; Liquid; Ointment; Powder; Solution; Suspension; Tablet

Amphenicol Indication

Used in treatment of cholera, as it destroys the vibrios and decreases the diarrhea. It is effective against tetracycline-resistant vibrios. It is also used in eye drops or ointment to treat bacterial conjunctivitis.

Amphenicol Pharmacology

Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that was derived from the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae and is now produced synthetically. Chloramphenicol is effective against a wide variety of microorganisms, but due to serious side-effects (e.g., damage to the bone marrow, including aplastic anemia) in humans, it is usually reserved for the treatment of serious and life-threatening infections (e.g., typhoid fever). Chloramphenicol is bacteriostatic but may be bactericidal in high concentrations or when used against highly susceptible organisms. Chloramphenicol stops bacterial growth by binding to the bacterial ribosome (blocking peptidyl transferase) and inhibiting protein synthesis.

Amphenicol Absorption

Rapidly and completely absorbed from gastrointestinal tract following oral administration (bioavailability 80%). Well absorbed following intramuscular administration (bioavailability 70%). Intraocular and some systemic absorption also occurs after topical application to the eye.

Amphenicol side effects and Toxicity

Oral, mouse: LD50 = 1500 mg/kg; Oral, rat: LD50 = 2500 mg/kg. Toxic reactions including fatalities have occurred in the premature and newborn; the signs and symptoms associated with these reactions have been referred to as the gray syndrome. Symptoms include (in order of appearance) abdominal distension with or without emesis, progressive pallid cyanosis, vasomotor collapse frequently accompanied by irregular respiration, and death within a few hours of onset of these symptoms.

Amphenicol Patient Information

No information avaliable

Amphenicol Organisms Affected

Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria